Because fNIRS is non-invasive, relatively inexpensive, and portable, this imaging method could be useful clinically as an objective measure or predictor of CI outcomes. Since its theoretical inception, psychopathy has been considered by philosophers, clinicians, theorists, and empirical researchers to be substantially and critically explained by genetic factors. In this systematic review and structural analysis, new hypotheses will be introduced regarding gene–gene and gene–environment interactions in the etiology of psychopathy and sociopathy. Theory and research from neurobiological and behavioral sciences will be integrated in order to place this work in a broader conceptual framework and promote synergy across fields. First, a between groups comparison between psychopathy and sociopathy is made based on their specific dysfunctions in emotional processing, behavioral profiles, etiological pathways, HPA-axis functioning, and serotonergic profiles.
HIP1/PDGFbetaR is a 180-kD protein when expressed in the murine hematopoietic cell line, Ba/F3, and is constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, HIP1/PDGFbetaR transforms the Ba/F3 cells to interleukin-3-independent growth. These data are consistent with an alternative mechanism for activation of PDGFbetaR tyrosine kinase activity by fusion with HIP1, leading to transformation of hematopoietic cells, and may implicate Huntingtin or HIP1 you re in trouble gif in the pathogenesis of hematopoietic malignancies. Multiplex families with autism originating from the isolated Finnish population by pairwise linkage analysis and sib-pair analysis. Mild evidence for putative contribution was found only with the 1p chromosomal region in the susceptibility to autism. Our data suggest that additional gene loci exist for autism which will be detectable in and even restricted to the isolated Finnish population.
However, with extensive heterogeneity in the CI-using population, future research needs to consider more varied population samples, both in terms of age and medical history. To date, published work has been consistent in terms of the outcomes that have been explored but has also employed varied methods of quantifying these outcomes. Overall, this field has made good progress, but more work needs to be conducted before the promise of an objective fNIRS-based tool can be realized. An important next step is for the field agree on a core set of CI outcomes and outcome measures.
Our findings indicate that, in spite of the recurrence of AHRRâNCOA2 in angiofibroma of soft tissue, additional genetic events might be required for the development of this tumor. Mediation analyses using behavioral, structural, and functional parameters alone did not reveal a significant interaction with TPH2 G‐703T and the impulsive/aggressive/anxious phenotype. All participants were trained outside the scanner and prior to the actual task. After training sessions, a first baseline block was conducted to determine the individual mean reaction time window (rt, Mrt± 2SD). The baseline block consisted of 20 trials and did not include a reward.
We argue that an effort toward standardization and advancement within three domains (i.e., immediate methodological advancements, analysis, and hardware) may facilitate a more efficient and meaningful progression of fNIRS research toward reliable on-road measurements. Efforts have been made to develop and standardize fNIRS data processing procedures and tools (Brigadoi et al., 2014; Di Lorenzo et al., 2019). For example, the decision tree in Figure 5 outlines a common fNIRS data processing pipeline.
We used tests with three-dimensional factors such as Benton’s three-dimensional block construction test, which are considered to be more sensitive than those with only two-dimensional factors. There were diverse inter-individual differences in the visuo-spatial constructive abilities among the present participants who shared the same typical genomic deletion of WS. One of the participants showed almost equivalent performances to typically developing adults in those tests. In the present study, we found a wide range of cognitive abilities in visuo-spatial construction even among the patients with a common deletion pattern of WS. The findings suggest that attributing differences in the phenotypes entirely to genetic factors such as an atypical deletion may not be always correct.
As this review was primarily interested in what studies of fNIRS have been published, it only used searches of academic databases and reference lists of relevant peer-reviewed records. From this, only peer-reviewed studies were included. Additional relevant studies may have been identified if grey literature records such as theses or preprints or general search engines were used. All eight articles included only healthy participants, with examples of exclusion criteria including anyone with a history of “language, cognitive or motor disorder or brain injury” and anyone with a “history of neurological or psychiatric illness” . A two-stage screening process was used to assess the relevance of the records identified from the searches. Records were eligible for inclusion if they were peer-reviewed reports on research with CI recipients and compared results from a NIRS-based methodology to a measure of CI outcome.
The other six articles reported cross-sectional studies and thus examined fNIRS as a measure of CI outcomes . All of the included records examined speech perception by using behavioral measures such as CUNY sentence lists in quiet or the Oldenburg sentences test . Nominal data were described with frequencies. There have been a number of reviews regarding the use of fNIRS in auditory/language research , and more specifically, the use of fNIRS in deaf or CI-using populations . However, to the best of our knowledge, no literature is available that specifically reviews work assessing the relationship between fNIRS cortical measures and behavioral outcomes in CI users.